The Image-Centric Approach to Paper Selection

One of the most common questions I receive about fine art printing is Which paper is best for…black and white images, or landscapes, or portraits?” And I totally understand those questions because I used to ask myself the same questions when I started down the path of printing my own work.

But eventually either you start to look at other paper options and wonder if there’s a better choice, or one (or many) of your prints don’t quite work as well as you’d like on your “chosen” paper.

Perhaps you’ve had the feeling that there’s something missing, but you don’t know exactly what that is. Or you simply accept the doubt because you think that’s the best you can do given the materials at hand. I’ve been there too.

On one such occasion, I decided to experiment with some sample papers I had received from my local dealer, and before the day was over, a whole new world had opened up to me. I had stumbled upon a new way (at least for me) of imagining my prints, and my landscape photography. For the first time I saw more of what I had envisioned in the field simply by using a paper that had a different texture or finish than what I was used to.

And that’s when I learned that there was more than one approach to selecting papers, one that could potentially allow me to become more creative with my prints. I learned that papers that have more contrast or saturation don’t lead to better prints. Nor is texture to be avoided with highly detailed images. It all depends on what you want to say with your prints. 

Lets examine the two approaches that I think are most common amongst photographers and print makers.

  • Paper-centric Approach – In a paper-centric approach, you evaluate different papers and their characteristics and decide which paper is best for you. This implies that most if not all of your images will be printed on this paper. You may have more than one favorite paper, but the focus is generally on the paper, not the image.
    When photographers ask me to recommend a paper for their images, or for a particular subject matter, ie. landscapes, I can tell they are using this approach. My answer is usually I don’t know.

  • Image-centric Approach– Instead of finding one paper that works best for your images, or even which paper is best for b&w or HDR, you evaluate each image based on what you’re trying to convey and choose a paper that best complements or strengthens that vision.
    The paper selection comes after you’ve determined what the image is about, not before. This allows you to be much more expressive with your prints, and use the unique qualities that a great paper can add to your images.

Because I use Canson Infinity papers, there is an exceptional range of high quality papers to choose from. But this doesn’t mean that I select from the whole range  because there are some papers that generally don’t complement the style of my images. 

Once you identify the papers that do complement your style and vision, and get to know those papers well, you can leverage them for their strengths and make stronger prints. I also love how this promotes a creative approach to print making, which can lead to many eye-opening surprises

I’m not saying that one approach is necessarily better than the other, but for me the image-centric approach definitely allows me to make the most expressive prints possible. It lets me become more creative and effective with paper selection. Given that we have the choices and technology that were never available to generations of photographer before us, I think it’s an artistic privilege tat I want to take advantage to produce the best work I can. 

Learning how to match an image to a specific paper requires at least these four factors:

  1. Clarity about what the image is about and how you want to convey that to the viewer.
  2. Understanding the specific tonal, textural, and aesthetic characteristics of a specific paper or range of papers.
  3. Allowing a print to become an object separate and distinct from the digital file or representation on your monitor or electronic device. Too often we fall into the trap of wanting to match what we see on screen, yet I believe this is a mistake. These are distinct mediums with their own unique ways of representing tone and color. Furthermore, this diminishes the role of the paper in creating a new or enhanced interpretation of the image—the reason we print in the first place. What matters most is not matching what we see on screen, but making a print we can be proud of. 
  4. Trial and error – Yes it’s unavoidable that paper will be wasted, but it’s the only way to truly learn the nuances of paper selection. Printing workshops can help as well, assuming paper selection is a major focus. (We dedicate a large portion of our workshops to this very topic.)

A painter adapts his approach and methods to the medium he’s painting on for the greatest aesthetic and emotional impact. Likewise I think a similar approach to paper selection yields the most captivating prints. Combine that with the excellent papers available from Canson Infinity, and there’s much to explore for the creative print maker.

I love paper and how it impacts and refines my vision as a landscape photographer. If you want to elevate your prints, or your photography though print making, the use of the right paper can make all the difference and set you on a new path of photographic discovery as it did for me years ago.

I’ll share more tips and insights about paper selection in future posts. Thanks for reading!

Photographing the Familiar with Fresh Eyes


“By three methods we may learn wisdom: First, by reflection, which is noblest; Second, by imitation, which is easiest; and third by experience, which is the bitterest.” – Confucius

So often students will ask me how is it that I can return to familiar locations over and over again and keep the experience, not mention the images, fresh, creative, and productive. That’s a perfectly valid question and one I have tried to answer myself over the years.

For me is starts with a mindset, one that doesn’t guarantee success, but puts me in the best possible attitude for success.

There is certainly much to be said about the excitement of a new place, something I enjoy as much as any other nature photographer I suspect. There’s no denying the thrill of seeing something for the first time, up close in person. It’s the reason why we love spending as much time as possible in nature, and the more variety the better.

Yet it is also unreasonable to think that the only time to photograph is when we find ourselves in a new and unique environment. (Read more on the importance of familiar landscapes. )


Approaching a familiar landscape with fresh eyes however is an extremely valuable skill to practice. I say “skill” because the approach can be learned for sure. Here are some suggestions I’ve used and field tested with success and hope you consider adopting when faced with the familiar.

  • Stay present – The more you remain engaged in what’s actually happening, the more likely you are to see and feel. Without some kind of emotional connection, it will be hard to convey anything more than a picture of the objects you photograph instead of what you’re responding to. A simple daily meditation practice can also be extremely helpful.
  • Look for light first – No matter where you are, light is the essential ingredient in a captivating image. Others will respond to that first no matter where the image was captured. The easiest way to move beyond location is to photograph light and it’s ability to convey emotion, mystery, and meaning.
  • Avoid judgement and self-criticism – Avoid the insatiable desire to check and judge every image captured on your cameras LCD. Once you press the shutter button, remain connected with the thread of inspiration that made you press the shutter to begin with. Keep your eyes engaged, look deeply, explore variations on the composition, and stay aware of the subtle changes in light. The more you stare at your LCD, the further away you get from what matters—the present moment of discovery.
    The thread of creativity can be very thin, and total concentration is the only thing that will keep it from weakening, or breaking all together. I can not stress this point enough–editing is best left for after you’re done creating. The more you remain in the right side of your brain, the more effective you will be as a photographer. 
  • Try something outside your comfort zone or instinctive approach – Not sure where to start? Try something put of the norm, like a different lens or focal length than what you’d normally use, or better yet just bring one lens in your bag. Resist the urge to move as soon as you think there’s nothing left to capture. I often return to familiar locations and simply stay in one spot because I can—there’s no rush to go anywhere else because I’m ok with just being where I am.
    Somehow I become more aware of things I would have missed before because I was too busy looking for the right place instead of exploring all options.
    There’s a difference between working with the canvas in front of you versus wandering around trying to find a canvas. That simple limitation will force you to consider elements more closely before dismissing them for something imagined.

The challenge of familiar places is that it puts the onus of creativity where it belongs—on you. That means you have to push yourself to see what’s really there instead of relying on the new, which always seems exciting at first. It makes you work harder for images, helping develop your vision and your sensitivity to what really resonates in your heart.

Yes it’s difficult, but it’s a sure way to make images that are your own when everything comes together. It will also help you become more objective about your work, because you won’t become seduced by novelty, but instead evaluate an images on it’s aesthetic merits.

Progress is made when you reach for what’s just beyond your grasp, and you have a sense of what you need to do to succeed. Valuing that experience is how you come to approach every opportunity equally, regardless of where you are. 

The Eye vs the Camera

Flowers at Bowtie, UT – Canon 1Ds Mk III, 1/125 sec @f/11. ISO 200, 25mm, no filters

One of the things I try to instill in students is the importance of understanding that a camera does not “see” the way our eyes see. While this may seem obvious, it is surprising how many photographers assume that what they see on their monitors at home is somehow an accurate representation of what they reacted to when they made the picture.

I specifically used the word “reacted,” because that’s what we do when something inspires us visually at first, and then emotionally soon after, to setup the tripod and make a picture. Of course we don’t notice them being separate, we simply see something that makes us feel a certain way and start snapping away.

How we feel is the essential component of any creative expression, and as photographers it’s what we strive to include in the pictures we make.

The more we make the picture about our feelings and less about the photography itself, the more effective and meaningful our work becomes.


This is the image the camera captured – but the image above is what I saw and felt.

Neuroscience is discovering more and more about how the brain works, and in particular how what we see is mostly a construct of the brain. It receives information from the retina and then interprets and combines that with context, experience, and perceptual shortcuts that enable us to make sense of the world in very short period of time – milliseconds.

A camera sensor captures exactly what is in front of it, without any of these subjective elements. That’s ok if you’re interested in documenting reality. But if you want to express what you feel, then you have to think about how developing an image in Lightroom can aid or hurt the success of your work.

It also shows how we can all stand in front of the same scene and make different pictures, even with the same exact cameras. It’s your uniqueness as a person that makes the difference.

Needless to say, it’s essential to control the outcome. Simply relying on the camera to faithfully capture the essence of your “reaction” is likely to leave you feeling frustrated.

This TedEd video explains more on how the eye and the camera are different. While it focuses on video cameras, the underlying technology is the same.

Attitude Is Everything for Making Forward Progress

How often have you approached a new location with the explicit goal of making your best landscape photograph? Or maybe a few good photographs? That sounds redundant doesn’t it? After all why else would you visit a new location with your camera bag?

But have you ever considered that this might be the wrong approach to take for success? That having the specific goal of capturing your best image yet may actually hinder your results? Is it possible that there’s a better approach? As you may have guessed by now, I think there is.

I believe the single most important factor in making meaningful landscape photographs is your attitude. My dictionary defines attitude as “a settled way of thinking or feeling about someone or something, typically one that is reflected in a person’s behavior.” For our purposes here, I’ll propose that a healthy attitude is a specific mindset, one that’s conducive to curiosity and open mindedness.

When you start with a goal, you limit your ability to change direction, to adapt to changing conditions, both internally and externally. Seeing is all about spontaneity, and a goal for a specific image is almost never as fluid as simply letting your vision lead the way.

Variability is the norm in nature and that requires a constantly changing and improvising approach when it comes to creative capture. There’s one thing I’ve realized over over again in my work, and also in the many hours I’ve spent working with students in the field. It’s the attitude that has the largest impact on forward progress in your photography.

You might be thinking at this point that forward progress doesn’t actually translate to great or meaningful images. But in fact progress and making your best images are intrinsically connected. You can’t make the best image possible if you aren’t making forward progress. At least not if you want to avoid repeating yourself—in other words, all your images look the same.

And I’ll assume if you’re reading this blog that you want to improve, want to push yourself creatively, and gain confidence and a greater sense of personal vision.

Your attitude affects what you look at, what you notice, and ultimately what you see. And as I mentioned before, it also directly affects your ability to connect with what’s happening around you.

How can you improve your attitude? Here are a few ideas to contemplate.

  • Notice the light, not the time.
  • Don’t ask if there’s anything to photography, ask “what can I learn right now?”
  • After each press of the shutter, focus more intently on the subject, not less. (I almost never see this on workshops, it’s quite the opposite-the more images made, the less engagement there is with the moment, and the more I see students engaged with their cameras.)
  • Finally, worry less about each picture, and focus on making lots of images in a way that keeps you inspired and motivated.

”Don’t worry about unity from piece to piece–what unifies your work is the fact that you made it.” Austin Kleon

Your attitude, why you photograph, and how that translates to your approach in the field, is what will have the greatest influence on your creative output.

And if you really want to push this idea to the limit, start with an attitude of gratitude, the rest will naturally flow from there.

“Take that tool in your hand and let it discover your joy.” – Robert Genn

Questions, feedback, and comments always welcome – lets learn together.

The Value of Uncertainty

Nova Scotia Rise / Canon 1DS mk III, 216sec@ f/16. ISO 100, 20mm

“Vision is always ahead of execution, knowledge of materials is your contact with reality, and uncertainty is a virtue.”- David Bayles

This comes from one of my favorite books, Art & Fear: Observations On the Perils (and Rewards) of Artmaking, by David Bayles and Ted Orland. I read this book soon after I embarked on my career as a landscape photographer, and it changed the way I thought about my work in the greater scheme of life.

I stopped worrying about comparison, measuring up to expectations and ideals, and trying to be “good.”

I found an inner peace with what I was trying to accomplish, and what it meant to me. Certainly the realities of navigating in a world mostly hostile to art making as a career were extremely difficult, and continue to be so.

But it’s amazing how attitude and perspective can overcome most any obstacle, especially when those obstacles are driven by fear. Uncertainty is a virtue, making each day a new experience and providing opportunities to try and make things that are meaningful for myself and others.

There’s plenty of certainty in our cameras and  ability to capture a perfect exposure. But that certainty is hollow, because it’s simply a mechanical process devoid of the simpler things that the camera can’t quite capture. The feeling of the crisp morning air, the smell of the seashore, the moment by moment experience of watching the sun rise. Knowing how to use your gear is fundamental in any attempt to manifest these ideas in a photograph, but vision is what makes it all possible.

“Simply put, art that deals with ideas is more interesting than art that deals with technique.” – David Bayles